There is often a great deal of similarity in educational outcomes for Black and Hispanic students. For example, Black and Hispanic students pass the STAAR reading test during grades 3-8 at similar rates (https://data.e3alliance.org/staar/), and low-income Hispanic students have similar graduation rates as their low-income Black counterparts (https://data.e3alliance.org/grad/). Disciplinary referral rates, however, are one of the few metrics where Black and Hispanic students have strikingly different outcomes. Regardless of income or gender, Black students suffer higher disciplinary referral rates than do Hispanic students. This slide shows that disciplinary referral rates for low-income Black males far exceed rates for low-income Hispanic males during all years reported. This speaks to a pattern noted by many researchers and practitioners wherein discipline does not uniformly affect students of color, but has unique impacts for Black students of all genders and income levels. The really good news is that, while serious disciplinary referrals have dropped slightly in the last four years for all students, disciplinary referrals for low-income Black boys has dropped significantly, from 46% to less than 40%.